Куда обратить особое внимание покупая сервера.

Куда обратить особое внимание покупая сервера.

Через некоторое время всякая фирма, по мере собственного расширения, способна столкнуться с ситуацией что окажется необходимо раскручивать собственную IT-область. Подходит фактор, что компании просто нужно доставать сильные сервера, ведь домашние компьютеры теперь не справляются с заданными приложениями и с хранением данных. Регулировка и пуск файлсервера позволяет урегулировать многие задач по реализации каковых требуется немалые мощности, упорядочивания основных и резервных копий важных данных, создание удаленного доступа к данными и остальным сетям организации. Покупка правильного сервера для организации дает возможность гарантировать стойкий доступ к рабочим данным предприятия. Перед покупкой дополнительно необходимо установить задания сервера ведь от этого зависит итоговая стоимость оборудования а также его обслуживание.

Сервер, в первую очередь, есть мощным компьютером, который в силах быстро выполнять разные вычисляемыые задачи как абузоустойчивый vps, а также собирать в себе все цифровые данные компании. В угоду лучшего комфорта сервера решили группировать согласно их предназначению и назначенных заданий. Согласно данной таблице сервера распределяют на:

Сервера, где обрабатываются довольно большие объемы информации. Данные сервера намеренно смонтированны непосредственно под базы данных.

Сервера, в задачи каких входит выполнение скриптов, что запрашивают значительных мощностей и где имеет возможность заниматься несколько участников одновременно.

Другие виды сервера можно отнести к файл-хранилище, все они нужны в целях сбережения информации и доступа к нему разных видов юзеров

Хотя, должны заметить что подобная систематика стала очень условной и нередко сервера выполняют сразу пару действий при работе.

По таким составляющим как оперативная память, мощьность процесора, емкость жесткого диска делают рабочую классификацию севрерных кластеров. Также значительно влияют на такое деление величина блока и его виды.

Ну, теперь начнём с первых шагов по верному подбору сервера.

В первую очередь поставьте задачи и функции, что будет делать ваш сервер.

Следующим ходом станет предвидение предвидимого условия а также места под работу сервера. Важно узнать численность юзеров, какие начнут использовать серверные потенциалы оборудования.

И наконец, необходимо выяснить каковыми вычислительными мощностями будет характеризоваться ваш новый сервер. Речь идет о приведенных мощьностях как микропроцессор, винчестер и другое

Всякий раз до покупки установите верно определите оценку нужд для фирмы. Это поможет вам избежать покупки сервера с недостаточными либо излишними мощностями, а следовательно — не делать лишних растрат. В случае если вы покупаете сервер с невеликими производственными мощностями тогда возникают проблемы с полноценной службой серверной активности, следовательно может появиться достаточно ошибок а также закрытость сервера. Если будет закуплен сервер с мощностями что перекрывают потребности, в таком случае это поведет бесполезные расходы на содержание и службу оборудования.

Данные советы предоставят вам шанс отыскать для себя сервер, что будет соответствовать любым вашим нуждам. И вам следует просчитать опцию роста мощностных параметров сервера с увеличением бизнеса. Сегодня вы сумеете найти для себя подходящий аренда выделенного сервера и не беспокоится о устойчивой работе и исполнения назначенных задач.

И так, сделаем итоги. Прежде надо принять решение какие проекты будут выполнятся на серверах, сколько именно сотрудников получат к нему вход и как много планируется одновременных подключений. Дальше рассчитываем как много ресурсов будет здесь использоваться и с данных данных браться к формированию требований на покупку сервера.

Искренне желаем вам благополучной эксплуатации и роста вашей фирмы.

Цель по выбору нужного выделеного сервера

Цель по выбору нужного выделеного сервера

Эта статья будет полезна организациям, состав сотрудников у каковой равняется от 4 до 15 специалистов.

Главная цель данной публикации является оповестить про функцию заказать сервер в компаниях а также предоставить рекомендации по наилучшему выбору серверного оборудования и программного обеспечения.

Главная речь в том что термин «Сервер» от английского означает как слуга. И вправду, сервер делает исключительно существенные сервисы для всех сотрудников различных сфер. Поэтому AHKOР стабильно считается весьма прочным, и по этой причине довольно дорогостоящим. И не всегда многие сервера оказываются наиболее мощными чем обычные стационарные пК. А также очень интересный момент заключается в том моменте что ежели сервера трудятся на граждан, тогда абоненты их следовательно повелителями.

Разберем качества и поручения.

Сейчас давайте придём к подобному выводу что цели которые конкретно осуществляет сервер впору приспособить для различных серверов, а позволено и сконцентрировать ряд поручений на одном сервере. С самого начала необходимо подразумевать что в фирмах севрерных кластеров больше одного, все это обуславливается тем что в действие вступают определённые моменты, что полагается разобрать по отдельности. Скажем что подобные разделения имеют очень символьный характер.

1. Компьютер что нужен для всевозможных софтов.

Этот сервер создается достаточно редко. Он предназначен для выполнения достаточно мощных программ, в основном это вычислительные задачи бухгалтерских программ или остальных программных средств которые требуют крайне немалых мощьностей для имеющихся вычислений. Как правило, в мелких фирмах такие приложения бывают очень редко и по этой причине подобные сервера заслужили не самую высокую понятность. Вот такой вид серверов требует наличие больших апаратных составляющих, сильные чипы последнего типа, и большого объема ОЗУ. Точно также обязательным условием является наличие запасных носителей и массивная охлаждающая система.

Делаем вывод — это очень дорогостоящие сервера. Но зато на таковых серверах можно ставить сервер под Дорвеи, и осуществлять работу по установке остального перечня кодов.

2. Сервер для целевых задач

Данный сервер имеет немало схожести с информационным сервером для кодов. Смысл такого сервера заключается в том что он назначен для подключения юзеров с разнообразным приоритетом допуска. Представленная методика даёт возможность подключаться к аппарату от разнообразных каналов (нередко очень медленных) и делать на нем различные высчитывания и устанавливать компьютерные программы. Это может быть как торговая а возможно и счетоводная компьютерные программы. От такого сервера необходима сильная и стабильная отдача, т.к. Одновременно к серверу должно быть подсоединено немало пользователей. Зато к данному серверу смогут подключаться пользователи с нетбуков и телефонов.

На терминальный подход подключаются клиенты под специальные приложения и компьютерные программы.

Во всех эпизодах поиска сервера надо принимать к сведению пару специфик, что сильно важны при работе.

Сервера не являются рабочим местом для работников. Чем реально меньшее количество специалисты получают к ним пароли, тем безопаснее.

Не имеет смысла удалять от серверных станций мышки а также клавиатуры. Неожиданно они станут очень важны

Весьма принципиальным критерием в работах серверов является электропитание. Не экономите на ИБП и батареях.

Серверные станции стабильно имеют необходимость в проф поддержке. Поэтому не забывайте смотреть за яркими маяками и острыми тонами которые выпускаются информационным сервером. Безопаснее сообщить о сигналах заранее, чем позже чинить неисправности.

Сервер будет работать довольно дольше при условии, что его не будут трогать дополнительно. Отсутствие частных заданий, исключительно организационные. Если он не работает круглыми сутками, значит так и надежнее, будет работать лет шесть, а может и свыше.

Типы судов

Bulk Carrier

Bulk Carriers are ships designed for carriage of solid bulk cargoes.

Combination Carrier

Combination Carriers include ships intended for separate carriage of oil and dry cargoes in bulk, ships intended for separate carriage of oil and ore in bulk and combination of the two above.

Container Ship

Container Ships are ships exclusively intended for the carriage of containers.

Gas Carrier

Gas carriers are ships intended for transportation of compressed or liquefied gas.

General Cargo Carrier and Ro/Ro

General Cargo Carriers are ships arranged for lift on/lift off cargo handling and intended for carriage of general dry cargoes.

Ore Carrier

Ore Carriers are ships designed for carriage of ore cargoes in centre holds.

Passenger Ship

Passenger Ships are primarely ships designed for carriage of passengers and Car and Train Ferries designed for regular transport of passengers and vehicles.

Tanker for Chemicals

Tankers for Chemicals are ships intended for transportation of all types of liquid chemicals.

Tanker for Oil

Oil carriers are ships intended for transport of oil in bulk, whereas oil product carriers are ships intended for transport of all types of oil products except crude oil.

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Аббревиатуры — Abbreviations

ABS — American Bureau of Shipping — American classification society.

ACOT — Advisory Committee on Offshore Technology

ACP — Area Contingency Plan

ADB — African/Asian Development Bank

AFRA — Average Freight Rate Assessment — average costs for the freight of oil with tankships.

Calculated by the Worldscale Association in London. based on an ongoing registration of all

freightrates at particular points in time.

AHT — Anchorhandling Tug — vessel employed in the offshore field moving anchors and performing

towing operations.

AHTS — AHT which is also a combined supplyvessel.

AID — Agency for International Development — US organization for civilian aid programmes.

AIMS — American Institute of Merchant Shipping — the American shipowners’ association for the major

part of the privately owned tonnage.

ALAMAP — Associac¢n Latinamericano de Armadores — Latin-American Shipowners’ Association

(established in March 1963).

ALU-TUCP — Philippine Seafarers’ Union, member of TUCP (Trade Union Council of the Philippines).

AMOSUP — Associated Marine Officers’ and Seamen’s Union of the Philippines — Filipino union for

officers and crew.

AMVER — Automatic Mutual-Assistance Vessel Rescue System — American warning system for

international shipping.

ASEAN — Association of South East Asian Nations — Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore.

ASF — Asian Shipowners’ Forum — shipowners’ association for East Asia and Oceania.

ASO — Arbeidsgiverforeningen for Skip og Offshorefartoyer — The Employers’ Organization for Ships

and Offshore Installations (Oslo).

AWES — Association of Western European Shipbuilders

BEI — Banque Europeenne d’Investissement — The European Investment Bank.

BFI — Baltic Freight Index — an index for bulk freight rates.

BIAC — Business and Industry Advisory Committee — OECD’s advisory committee. Opposite to TUAC.

BICC — Bureau International des Chambres de Commerce — International information bureau for

Chambers of Commerce.

BIFA — British International Freight Association

BIFFEX — Baltic International Freight Futures Exchange (London) — an exchange for the buying and

selling of futures, based on the BFI.

BIMCO — The Baltic and International Maritime Council (Copenhagen)

BIS — Bank for International Settlements (Basel)

BISCO — British Iron and Steel Corporation

BOSVA — British Offshore Supply Ships Association

BOTB — British Overseas Trade Board (London)

BROA — British Rigowners’ Association

BSC — British Shippers Council

BSI — British Standards Institution

BV — Bureau Veritas — French classification society.

CAACE — Comité des Associations d’Armateurs de la Communaute Europeenne (Brussels) —

organization for shipping companies from the EU.

CACM — Central American Common Market

CAJEA — Council of All Japanese Exporters’ Association

CARICOM — Caribbean Community.

CASO — Council of American-flag Ship Operators (eight liner companies which left the AIMS).

CBA — Collective Bargaining Agreement (tariff agreement) — CBA for Filipino seamen between

AMOSUP and ASO is an example. The term is used for any kind of tariff agreement, both for NISships

and foreignflagged ships.

CCA — Chemical Carriers Association

CCAF — Comite des Armateurs de France — the French shipowners’ association.

CCC — Customs Co-operation Council — forum for international cooperation between customs

authorities, attempting to create harmony and uniformity of approach.

CE — Conseil de l’Europe (Strasbourg)

C&E — Customs and Excise — British Department for Tariffs and Customs.

CEFOR — Maritime insurers central association.

CEMT — Conference Europeenne des Ministres des Transports — OECD-affiliated organization for

dealing with transportation problems on rails, roads and inland waterways.

CEN — European Standardization Organization

CENSA — Council of European and Japanese National Shipowners’ Associations (London).

CIS — Commonwealth of Independant States

CLC — Civil Liability Convention of 1969.

CMI — Comite Maritime International — the international association for maritime law.

COFR — Certificate of Financial Responsibility — regarding the transport of oil to USA. Vessels must

have a certificate guaranteeing the payment of up to USD 1,500 per dwt. in case of oil spills.

COGSA — Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (USA).

COTTON CLUB — informal forum for Western European and Japanese shipping attachees in

Washington.

CRISTAL — Contract Regarding a Supplement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution — a voluntary system

established by oil companies in order to «plug» holes in IMO-conventions concerning the financial

settlement of claims in connection with oil spills. The oil companies’ supplemet to TOVALOP.

CSC — Container Safety Convention — convention for the promotion of safer containers.

CSG — Consultative Shipping Group — forum for the discussion of shipping policy on Government level.

Fourteen West-European participants and Japan.

DIS — Dansk Internationalt Skibsregister — Danish International Shipregister.

DG — Directorate General — the term used for the various departments of the EU-Commission.

DNME — Dynamic Non-Member Economies (referring to dynamic countries which are not members of

the OECD)

DNMF — Det norske maskinistforbund — the Norwegian association for ships’ engineers.

DNV — Det Norske Veritas (NV) — Norwegian classification society.

DoTI — Department of Trade and Industry, UK

DR — Danmarks Rederiforening — the Danish Shipowners’ Association.

DSO — De samarbeidende organisasjoner — cooperation between DNMF and NS for mobile offshore

installations (Norway).

DSRK — Deutsche Schiffs Revision und Klassifikation — German classification society.

EBRD — European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

ECE — Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva (UN)

ECJ — European Court of Justice (EU)

ECLA — Economic Commission for Latin America, UN-body under ECOSOC.

ECMT — European Conference of Ministers of Transport

ECOSOC — Economical and Social Council of the United Nations, New York — UN’s main body for

economic questions. The regional commissions — ECLA, ESCAP, ECA, etc. — answer to ECOSOC.

ECSA — European Community Shipowners’ Association (Brussels)

ECSC — European Coal and Steel Community

ECU — European Currency Units. A financial unit used for EU accounting.

EEA — European Economic Area

EFTA — European Free Trade Association of Non-common Market Countries.

EIB — European Investment Bank

ELA — Euzko Langilleen Alkartsuna — Spanish-Basque trade union.

EMA — European Monetary Agreement

EMIF — European Maritime Industries Forum

EMU — Economic Monetary Union

E&P FORUM — The Oil Industry International Exploration and Production Forum (London). Statoil,

Norsk Hydro and Saga Petroleum are full Norwegian members, while OLF is associated member.

ESA — EFTA Surveillance Authority.

ESC — European Shippers’ Council (Hague)

ESCAPE — Economic and Social Commission for Asia and South Pacific — under ECOSOC.

EUROS — Planned shipregister in the EU.

EXIMBANK — Export-Import Bank of the United States to promote American exports.

FACS — Federation of American Controlled Shipping — organization for US companies with ships under

FOC, mainly the Liberian.

FAO — UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (Rome)

FASA — Federation of Asian Shipowners’ Associations

FENSO — Federation of Norwegian Ships Officers organizations (NMB in Norwegian)

FIATA — Federation Internationale des Associations de Transifaires et Assimiles (Zurich) —

International association of forwarding agents.

FMC — Federal Maritime Commission — American independant control authority regulating liner

services to the USA.

FOC — Flag of Convenience

FONASABA — Federation of National Associations of Shipbrokers and Agents

FR — Finlands Rederiförening — the Finnish Shipowners’ Association.

GATS — General Agreement on Trade in Services — part of GATT — concerns trading in services, incl.

shipping.

GATT — General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Geneva).

GCBS — General Council of British Shipping — the amalgamation of the former BSF — British Shipping

Federation — and the UK Chamber of Shipping, established 1976.

GIS — German International Shipregister

GL — Germanischer Lloyd — German classification society.

GMDSS — Global Maritime Distress and Safety System

GBS — Gravity Base Structure

HR — Hellenic Register of Shipping — Greek classification society.

IACS — International Association of Classification Societies

IADC — International Association of Drilling Contractors (Houston/Amsterdam)

IAPH — International Association of Ports and Harbours.

IBIA — International Bunker Industry Association (Kingston on Thames).

IBRD — International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (Washington) — the World Bank.

ICC — International Chamber of Commerce

ICFTU — International Confederation of Free Trade Unions

ICHCA — International Cargo Handling Co-ordination Association (London)

ICOTAS — International Committee on the Organization of Traffic at Sea (London)

ICPL — International Committee on Passenger Lines (for the CENSA-countries).

ICS — International Chamber of Shipping (London)

IFC — International Finance Corporation

IFSMA — International Federation of ShipMasters Association (London)

ILA — International Law Association

ILO — UN’s International Labour Organization (Geneva)

IMB — International Maritime Bureau — bureau established by the ICC to combat fraud in the shipping

industry.

IMDG — International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code — rules for the labelling of dangerous goods at

sea.

IMEC — International Maritime Employers’ Committee

IMIF — International Maritime Industry Forum — a forum for banks and shipbuilders with the purpose of

solving problems in connection with surplus tanker tonnage.

IMO — International Maritime Organization (London) — UN’s maritime authority.

IMPA — International Pilots’ Association

IMU — International Maritime Union (Latin-American seamen’s union with US affiliations.)

INMARSAT — International Maritime Satellite Organization (London)

INSROP — International Northern Sea Route Programme — comprehensive, multi-national, multidisciplinary

five-year research programme investigating commercial navigation through the North-East

Passage.

INTERCARGO — International Association of Dry Cargo Shipowners (London) — Opposite number to

INTERTANKO.

INTERTANKO — International Association of Independent Tanker Owners (Oslo)

IOE — International Organization of Employers

IOPC — International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund

IOPP — International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate

ISF — International Shipping Federation (London) — cooperation of maritime employers’ associations.

ISM — International Safety Management Code

ISMA — International Ship Managers’ Association

ISO — International Standards Organization (London)

ISOA — International Support Vessels Owners’ Association (London)

ITF — International Transport Workers’ Federation (London)

ITOPF — International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Ltd. (London) — manages TOVALOP and

cooperates closely with CRISTAL.

ITS — International Tanker Service — planned cooperation in the market between independent tanker

owners.

IWA — International Wheat Agreement

JR — Jugoslav Register — Yugoslav classification society.

KFK — Koordinerende forskningskomite (Norway) — Coordinating Research Committee.

KPI — Kesatuan Pelant Indonesia — Indonesian seamen’s union.

LAFTA — Latin America Free Trade Association

LLMC — International Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims

LOF’90 — Lloyd’s Open Form 1990 — standard form of salvage agreement.

LR — Lloyd’s Register of Shipping — British classification society.

MARAD — Maritime Administration (USA) — authority under the US department for Trade. Handles

subsidies etc. to American shipyards and shipping companies.

MARINTEK — Norsk Marinteknisk Forskningsinstitutt A/S (Trondheim) — Norwegian maritime research

institution.

MARPOL — International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ships (London)

MEIF — Mandatory Excess Insurance Facility — Norwegian-Swedish-Greek proposal to solve the

COFR-question.

MEPC — Maritime Environment Protection Committee (IMO, London)

MITS — Maritim information technology.

MSC — Maritime Safety Committee (IMO, London)

MTC — Maritime Transport Committee (OECD)

MUI — Maritime Union of Indian Officers

NASCO — Norwegian Asian Seafarers’ Conference

NATO — North-Atlantic Treaty Organization — Western defence alliance.

NFD — Norwegian Friendship Development — Norwegian recruiting office in Manila.

NIS — Norsk Internasjonalt Skipsregister (Bergen) — Norwegian International Ship Register.

NK — Nippon Kaiji Kyokai — Japanese classification society.

NMB — Norsk Maritimt Befalskartell — (see FENSO)

NMU — National Maritime Union (USA)

NOKUS — Special taxation scheme for Norwegian-controlled companies in low-tax countries.

NOPEF — Norsk Olje- og Petrokjemisk Fagforbund, Stavanger — Norwegian trade union for oil industry

workers.

NOR — Skipsregisteret, Bergen. Often termed Norsk Ordinært Register — the Norwegian Ordinary Ship

Register.

NORDKOMPASS — Nordisk Komite for Passasjerskip — Nordic forum for passengership and ferry

companies and shipowners’ associations.

NR — Norges Rederiforbund (Oslo) — Norwegian Shipowners’ Association (NSA).

NS — Norsk Styrmandsforening — the former Norwegian association for ships’ mates.

NSA — see NR

NSF — Norsk Sjomannsforbund — Norwegian Seafarers’ Union, (also Norsk Skibsforerforbund —

Norwegian Association of Master Mariners)

NSOAF — North Sea Offshore Authority Forum.

NSU — National Seafarers’ Union (Sri Lanka)

NTC — Norwegian Training Center (Manila)

NUMAST — British trade union for officers and crew.

NUS — National Union of Seamen — British seamen’s union.

NUSI — National Union of Seamen of India

NV — see DNV

OAPEC — Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries

OCIMF — Oil Companies’ International Marine Forum (London)

OECD — Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development — 25 member countries.

OFS — Oljearbeidernes Fellessammenslutning (Stavanger) — Norwegian federation of trade unions in

the oil industry.

OFU — Offshorenæringens Forhandlingsutvalg — negotiating committee for the offshore industry.

OLF — Oljeindustriens Landsforening (Stavanger) — Federation of oil industry employers.

OPA — Oil Pollution Act (USA)

OPEC — Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Vienna)

OSSL — Oljeserviceselskapenes Landsforening — The Association of Norwegian Oil Industry Service

Companies.

OSV — Offshore Support Vessel

PBOS — NATO Planning Board for Ocean Shipping (Brussels)

P&I — Protection and Indemnity Insurance

POEA — Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (Manila)

PR — Polish classification society.

PSU — Polish Seafarers’ Union (formerly S-FUF or MR).

PSV — Platform Supply Vessel.

RI — Registro Italiano — Italian classification society.

RLF — Rederienes Landsforening — Association of Norwegian short-sea shipowners.

ROV — Remote Operated Vehicle

RS — the former Soviet classification society.

SEATO — South-East Asian Treaty Organization — defence alliance.

SFT — Statens Forurensningstilsyn — Norwegian Pollution Authority.

SIGGTO — Society of International Gas Tankers and Terminal Operators

SIRE — Ship Inspection Report Programme

SIU — Seafarers’ International Union (USA)

SIØS — Senter for Internasjonal Økonomi og Skipsfart ved Norges Handelshoyskole i Bergen —

Norwegian center for maritime economics (Bergen).

SOLAS — Convention on Safety of Life at Sea (IMO, London)

SRF — Sveriges Redareförening, Gothenburg — Swedish Shipowners’ Association.

STCW — International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping (IMO,

London)

STUFT — Ships Taken Up From Trade — merchant vessels chartered by the military.

SUNAMAM — Brazilian shipping organization representing the authorities.

TIR — Transport Internationale Routier — International customs’ convention.

TOVALOP — Tanker Owners’ Voluntary Agreement Concerning Liabililty for Oil Pollution (London)

TUAC — Trade Union Advisory Committee — advisory committee representing employees in the OECD.

UGT — Union General de Trabajadores — Spanish TUC.

UNCLOS — United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea

UNCTAD — United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (Geneva)

UNIDO — United Nations Industrial Development Organization

USCG — U.S. Coast Guard

USMC — US Maritime Commission

VDR — Verband Deutscher Reeder — German Shipowners’ Association.

VTS — Vessel Traffic System

WFTU — World Federation of Trade Unions

WPC — World Petroleum Congress

WTO — World Trade Organization

Types of Affreightment — Типы фрахтования

Bareboat Charter-Party (Demise C/P) — contract for the hire of an empty ship. All operating costs are

covered by the charterer.

Charter-Party (C/P) — contract for the hire of a ship or space in a ship.

Contract of Affreightment, c.o.a. — contract for the hire of a ship. The shipowner undertakes the

transport of certain amounts of goods for one or several voyages.

Hire-purchase Charter-Party — C/P where the charterer gets ownership of the vessel at the

conclusion of the C/P.

Leasing — when a ship is leased, the owner may in fact utilize it as in a bareboat or hire-purchase-

C/P, but without entering into a charter-party-contract. The price is agreed between the shipping

company (lessee) and the vessel’s legal owner — the leasing company (lessor). The agreed fee will

normally give the lessor a return on the investment with a profit during the leasing period. When the

agreed period expires, the lessee may extend the leasing, but at a reduced fee (e.g. 1/12 of previous

fee), or purchase the vessel at its estimated value.

Spotrate — rate for single voyage based on the market situation on the day.

T/C-trip — the ship is hired for one voyage, but under T/C terms.

Time-Charter (T/C) — the hiring of a vessel for a specified period of time.

Voyage-Charter — contract of carriage where the charterer pays for the use of the vessel’s cargo

spaces for one or more voyages. Payment is calculated per ton goods carried. The owner pays all

operating costs.

Offshore Vessels Оффшорные суда

Accommodation Unit/Floatel — normally a semisubmersible or jackup (See Jackup), equipped with

cabins, catering facilities and office space for up to 800 persons. The installation is normally used for

the accommodation and catering for personell constructing or operating a fixed production platform.

An accommodation unit may also be equipped with workshops and/or storage facilities.

Anchorhandling Tug — AHT — ship carrying out tasks such as the placing or moving of anchors, as

well as towing drilling installations and barges etc. May double as a supply vessel and is in such

cases termed Anchorhandling Tug/Supply (AHTS).

Crane and Construction Vessel/Unit — normally a ship, a barge or a semisubmersible, equipped for

the construction and maintenance of fixed installations. May sometimes offer accommodation. Other

services offered are: Storage facilities, the supply of water, compressed air and electricity, office

space, communications centre, helicoptre landing pad, etc.

Diving Support Vessel — ship with diving equipment on board, carrying out various types of diving

operations. May also be equipped with remotely operated or controlled sub-sea robots (Remote

Operated Vehicle — ROV).

Drilling Barge — barge equipped for drilling operations in smooth seas. Normally not equipped with

own propulsion machinery. Max. drilling depth approximately 150 metres.

Drilling Rig — drilling tower with turntable and mudpumping system. May be installed on an offshore

rig or placed on a fixed or floating offshore installation like a drillship.

Drillship — ship equipped with drilling rig and its own propulsion machinery. Kept in position by

Dynamic Positioning Equipment. Operating in waters with a max. depth of 2,000 metres.

Drilling Tender — ship serving drilling installations which are depending on a ship or a barge for

storage, accommodation, etc.

Jackup — movable installation consisting of a large deck with legs which may be jacked up. During

operation, the legs are resting on the seabed, and the vessel «jacked up», leaving the deck in secure

position high above the surface of the sea. When moved, the legs are retracted and the installation

floates. Usually not equipped with own propulsion machinery. (Max. water depths 110 to 120 metres.)

Normally used as a drilling rig.

Offshore service vessels — common term for specialized vessels used during the exploration,

development and production phases of oil and gas finds at sea.

Production Ship — specialized ship pumping oil through flexible pipelines from the seabed.

Production Unit — platform equipped for the production of oil and gas.

Seismic ship — vessel mapping gelogical structures in the seabed by firing air guns transmitting

sound waves into the bottom of the sea. The ecco of the shot is captured by listening

devices/hydrophones being towed behind the vessel. A seismic ship provides data which is an

intrinsic part of the material determining if and when a test drilling should be initiated.

Semisubmersible — movable installation consisting of a deck on stilts, fastened to two or more

pontoons. When in operation, the pontoons are filled with water and lowered beneath the surface. The

installation is normally kept in position by a number of anchors, but may also be fitted with dynamic

positioning equipment (DPE). Usually fitted with own propulsion machinery (max. water depths 600 —

800 metres).

Stand-by Vessel — ship permanently stationed in the vicinity of an installation with the task of

evacuating the rig-crew in an emergency. Also carrying out guard duty keeping other ships away from

the installation.

Submersible — movable installation constructed for drilling operations in shallow waters, where it is

lowered until it rests on the seabed (max. water depth 30 — 40 metres).

Supply ship — vessel transporting stores and equipment to drilling rigs or installations being built or in

the production phase. Often called Straight Supply, or Platform Supply Vessel (PSV).

Tension Leg Platform — floating platform or loading buoy fastened to the seabed with vertical chains

or stays etc. , kept in position by its own buoyancy.

Types of Ships Типы судов

Bulk ship (bulk carrier) — single deck ship carrying homogenous unpackaged cargoes. Loaded

through large hatchways.

Bulk-oil carrier — multipurpose vessel built to carry cargoes of coal as well as oil. Most bulk-oil

carriers are reinforced to carry ores and are called OBO-ship (ore/bulk/oil).

Chemical tanker — special tanker built for the transporta-tion of bulk chemicals. Newer tonnage is

equipped with stainless steel tanks. Ships may carry many different cargoes simultaneously, because

each tank has its own pump and pipeline system for loading and unloading.

Combination carrier — ships for the transportation of both liquid and dry bulkcargoes. There are two

main types: Ore carriers and bulk-tank-ships.

Container vessel — Ship specially designed to carry standard containers (TEUs). Generally called

Cellular container ship. The larger part of the cargo-carrying capacity consists of containers carried on

deck or in cells in the hold. Containers are lifted on and off with special cranes and are then called lift

on-lift off-ships (see special entry). Container ships are generally fast, operating regular sailing

schedules (lines).

Cruise ship — passenger vessel carrying passengers on trips between various ports, normally with the

same starting and ending port. Standards of accommodation and recreation normally high.

Feeder Vessel — a short-sea vessel used to fetch and carry goods and containers to and from deep

sea vessels.

Flo-flo-ship — special ship which may be submerged to allow cargo to be floated on or off, i.e. jack-up

platforms which may be carried «piggy-back»-fashion on a flo-flo-ship.

Gas tanker — special ship for the transportation of condensed (liquid) gases. The most important

cargoes are:

  • · LNG — Liquefied Natural Gas (mostly methane).
  • · LPG — Liquefied Petroleum Gas (propane, butane).
  • · Ammonia.
  • · Ethylene.

On board, gases are kept liquid with highly effective insulation (thermosbottle-principle), by high

pressure or by low temperature. LNG-ships must be able to carry cargoes with temperatures as low

as -163°C.

HSS — Highspeed Sea Service — fast ferry concept with double- or multihulled vessels with carrying

capacity of up to 1500 passengers and around 400 cars.

LASH — Lighter Aboard Ship, i.e. ships which can carry lighters «piggy-back» fashion.

Liner — Vessel serving a regular defined route or trade, following a published sailing schedule.

Lo-lo-ship — Lift on-lift off-ship. Containers or other goods are lifted on board and ashore by cranes.

Multipurpose ship — general cargo ship which can also carry containers.

OBO-carrier — vessel built for the carriage of diversified bulkcargoes (i.e. Oil/Bulk/Ore).

Oil-tanker — ship carrying crude oil or refined products. If a ship is equipped to carry several types of

cargo simultaneously, the ship type is called Parcel tanker. A shuttle tanker is a tanker carrying oil

from offshore oil fields to terminals. An oil tanker especially built for the transportation of refined

oilproducts, often with tanks painted or coated on the inside, is called a product carrier.

Ore/oil carrier — ship with separate cargo holds for ore cargoes. When the ship is carrying oil, the ore

holds may also be filled with oil, in order to utilize the deadweight capacity to the fullest.

Parcel tanker — see Oil-tanker.

Product carrier — see Oil-tanker.

Reefer Vessel — vessel with refrigerated cargo hold(s).

Ro-ro-ship (Roll on — Roll off) — the cargo is driven on board and ashore, either by means of own

engine (cars/trailers), or by means of special trucks. There are three main areas:

  • · Ro-ro-ship operating in lines carries containers, pallets, flats or general cargo, and any type of

cargo that can be driven on board.

  • · Ro-ro-ship for the transportation of new automobiles (specialised: Pure Car Carrier — PCC),

may also carry other rolling cargo.

  • · Ro-ro-ferries carrying a combination of rolling cargo (cars/lorries/trailers) and passengers.

Shuttle tanker (Buoy-loader — see Oil tanker).

SWATH — Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull — fast and economical hull design, primarily used for

highspeed ferries, etc.

Tanker — ship carrying liquid bulk cargoes.

Aframax — American Freight Rate Association — approximately 80,000 — 105,000 dwt — term for a tank

ship of standard size.

Capesize — vessel which is too large to navigate the Suez Canal to and from the Arabian Gulf,

therefore being forced to voyage around the Cape of Good Hope — approximately 80,000 — 175,000

dwt.

Vessel Sizes Размеры судов

Handymax — dry bulk vessel of approximately 35,000 — 50,000 dwt.
Handysize — dry bulk vessel or product tanker, 15,000 — 50,000 dwt.
Panmax or Panamax — the largest bulk carrier which can pass through the Panama Canal fully loaded (approximately 80 ,000 dwt.).
Suezmax — the largest tank vessel which can pass through the Suez Canal fully loaded (120,000 — 165,000 dwt.).
ULCC — Ultra Large Crude Carrier — oil tanker of 300,000+ dwt.
VLCC — Very Large Crude Carrier — oil tanker between 200,000 and 300,000 dwt.

Морской бюллетень

В виде бескорыстной спонсорской помощи публикуем здесь ссылку на Мосркой бюллетень известно российского журналиста (или аналитика) Михаила Войтенко:

МОРСКОЙ БЮЛЛЕТЕНЬ — Maritime Bulletin